Drug dependence is a syndrome that occurs during the use of psychotropic substances; it is further characterized by a pathological need for the intake of these substances in order to avoid the formation of mental disorders and the appearance of a state of discomfort that occurs when the intake is stopped or when antagonists of such substances are administered.
Not only tranquilizers, narcotic analgesics, barbiturates cause drug dependence, but also hallucinogenic substances, organic solvents. The disease forms during repeated injections of psychoactive substances. In this case, the clinical picture is the same as with drug addiction. There are two types of drug dependence: psychological and physical. During psychological dependence, when you stop taking the substance, you get a feeling of emotional and psychological discomfort. Attraction is intrusive, often irresistible.
Physical drug dependence is characterized by withdrawal syndrome, which is observed along with autonomic-somatic and neurological disorders. Withdrawal syndrome can also occur with the introduction of antagonists of the substance that served as the drug. The nature of abstinence and the course of its course directly depends on the type of psychoactive substance itself, as well as on factors such as the duration of consumption and the dose administered.
There are certain substances that can cause a complex of addictions (both psychological and physiological). These are morphine, tranquilizers, codeine, barbiturates. The development of drug dependence is often accompanied by the formation of addiction. This is especially true in case of abuse of morphine, as well as narcotic analgesics. In general, the mechanisms of development of drug addiction are not well understood.
The formation of psychological drug dependence is affected by the ability of psychotropic substances to distort a person’s mental state, increase or decrease perception, fear, and anxiety. Therefore, a certain circle of people, being in the grip of disposing factors, feels the need to consume such substances in order to achieve a comfortable state. Dependence develops when prescribing psychotropic drugs to neurotic patients, who after the end of the course of treatment tend to further relieve depressing sensations.
The development of physical drug dependence is influenced by adaptive reactions that are associated with a change in the number and sensitivity of receptors in the human organs. In addition, the production of endogenous substances in the body is disrupted. Stopping addiction medication causes withdrawal symptoms. The phenomena occurring in the body with withdrawal syndrome are completely opposite to the effects caused by a psychotropic substance. For example, with morphinism during withdrawal symptoms, severe pain and diarrhea appear. When stopping the use of barbiturates, convulsions are observed, with the withdrawal of tranquilizers, increased anxiety of the patient is noted.
The appearance of drug dependence occurs in most cases during the medical treatment of a number of certain diseases, mainly in chronic or progressive forms. The treatment of such diseases is carried out by the most modern and quite effective drugs. Also, drug dependence is encountered when conducting substitution therapy.
Nevertheless, this dependence differs from drug and toxic dependence, primarily in that the cessation of the drug inevitably leads to an exacerbation of the cured disease, but not to the manifestation of withdrawal symptoms, which is characteristic of physical dependence on psychoactive drugs. In diabetes mellitus, the withdrawal of insulin leads to the development of hyperglycemia or coma, the cessation of glucocorticoids in asthma leads to an increase in its attacks, and the withdrawal of antianginal drugs aggravates the course of coronary heart disease.