If you drive the problem out of the door, then it will certainly knock on the window, though in the form of a symptom.
In the modern world, almost one in three residents of megacities suffers from psychosomatic disorders. Chronic stresses, problems at work, crises in family life, a constant lack of time, information overload – all these factors not only significantly worsen the quality of life, but also quickly make themselves felt by impaired functioning of the body.
The reactions of our body and psyche to stress factors are quite ancient. Our ancestors reacted in two ways during danger: defending themselves or fleeing. For the first time, the mechanism of the psychological and somatic manifestation of the “hit or run” reaction was described at the beginning of the last century. During stress, the human body is mobilized, the sympathetic nervous system and stress hormones – cortisol and norepinephrine are activated. A person’s heart rate rises, reflexes accelerate, blood rushes to his temples, and he feels trembling in his arms and legs. After eliminating a stressful situation, a person feels devastation, loss of strength, drowsiness. This condition is familiar to absolutely everyone.
Scientists have proven that if a person is constantly under stress, his immune system begins to fail. In addition, in modern society, people can not always give vent to emotions during stress and respond to conflict, trauma or other stress factor. Anger, rage, frustration, disappointment, not getting a way out, are also the cause of various psychosomatic disorders.
Interestingly, in a number of Western countries there are impromptu “room for beating dishes”, mainly designed for office employees. Anyone can come there and simply kill any quantity of dishes, thus relieving stress. At first, this know-how originated in Japan, and later spread to other European countries. According to doctors, it is in this way that stress can be relieved, reducing the risk of developing psychosomatic disorders.
Types of Psychosomatic Disorders
What distinguishes psychosomatic disorders from other pathological diseases? They are closely interconnected with the emotional and mental state of a person. Psychosomatic disorders were first classified in 1968. This classification included the most common diseases and their causes:
- essential hypertension – occur in people prone to pessimism, depression, anxiety;
- neurodermatitis – the cause is a difficult relationship with a partner, painful separation, sexual dissatisfaction;
- peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum – according to experts, arises from a lack of love, which forms the habit of replacing love with food;
- bronchial asthma – arise due to pathological assertiveness, a desire to get what you want at all costs;
- hyperthyroid syndromes – occur mainly in women who cannot realize themselves, overestimate the requirements for themselves, are afraid of the opinions of others, are vulnerable in the soul;
- rheumatoid arthritis – occurs in aggressive personality types that have high nervous excitability. Pathology develops when events are not according to the patient’s scenario, contrary to his aspirations and desires;
- nonspecific ulcerative colitis – occur in people who like to live in the past, return to their memories, reliving everything again. Usually they are concerned about negative situations that have long been left in the past.
Modern psychiatry shares psychosomatic disorders based on their pathogenesis and connection. In particular, psychiatrists note the following types of disorders:
- Conversion symptoms. This class includes hysteria with stupor, temporary blindness and deafness, pain of various localization, vomiting. Such symptoms occur against the background of an unresolved stressful situation as a secondary response.
- Psychosomatoses. In this case, we are talking about the primary reaction of the body to stressful situations. This group includes diseases listed in the 1968 classification, and based on modern knowledge of psychosomatics, this also includes coronary heart disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes, migraine, colic, psychosomatic thyrotoxicosis, gallbladder dyskinesia, radiculitis, vitiligo, psoriasis and infertility of unknown etiology .
- Functional symptoms. As a rule, we are talking about somatic symptoms of the widest range (ranging from epigastric pain and ending with migraines), which do not correspond to any of the diseases. Moreover, the patient has a pronounced depressive component, anxiety, sleep disturbance, anxiety.
Diagnostic techniques for psychosomatic disorders
When diseases of the psychosomatic spectrum occur, it is important to understand what leads to the development of pathology, which psychological causes are primary. The main methods for the diagnosis of psychosomatic disorders include:
- conversations with a psychotherapist;
- passing psychological tests;
- instrumental and visual diagnostic methods;
- visiting a specialist (cardiologist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist and others).
A history is taken as part of a conversation with a specialist. All data is subjected to careful analysis, as a result of which the relationship between the symptoms and the psychological state of the patient is built. It is also important to understand how the patient himself perceives the situation, whether he understands what could lead to a physiological disease.
As part of a psychotherapeutic session, the following data are found out:
- The patient’s experiences about the developed disease.
- The level of responsibility of the patient for his illness.
- Patient history
- Genetic predisposition to the disease.
- The presence of close people and friends with whom you can share emotional experiences.
- Patient-specific behavior is self-control, an expansive manifestation of emotions.
The psychotherapist’s main task is to convey to the patient’s consciousness that his illness is in an emotional, emotional state, and, first of all, psychotherapy is necessary.
Treatment for Psychosomatic Disorders
The treatment will be carried out comprehensively. Applicable:
- drug treatment that focuses on the underlying disease (for example, gastric ulcer);
- psychotherapeutic treatment aimed at correcting the patient’s mental and emotional state.
In particular, psychotherapeutic sessions, cognitive-behavioral therapy, personality therapy, correction are carried out. A detailed treatment regimen is prepared by a specialist, depending on the characteristics of each particular case.
Prevention of psychosomatic disorders is the ability to cope with stress and conflict. If possible, it is necessary to visit a specialist – psychologist, psychotherapist, get psychological tools that will help to cope with difficult situations.