Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammation of the skin with sebaceous glands. More often it affects the areas of the back, face, chest and head, in places of hair growth – places of greater accumulation of sebaceous glands. However, the rest of the body is no exception, and can also be affected by it, including the hands.
The fact that people get such a disease are to blame for its pathogens – the yeast-like fungi Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta, which are present on the epidermis of every person. But their very presence in humans does not cause illness. This happens when, as the secretions of the sebaceous glands increase, their number also increases, which leads to inflammation and itching of the skin. In addition to this name, the disease is also called seborrheic eczema or seborrhea. People also call seborrheic dermatitis “saline treatment”.
The affected skin is characterized by redness, swelling, and swelling. The disease is usually accompanied by an increase in the patient’s temperature, as well as burning and itching of the affected areas. In places of reddening of the skin, which usually look like large plaques, there can also be small and even large bubbles with liquid, the tightness of which is easily broken, which leads to wetting of the affected surface. Naturally, for each person the disease passes individually, with varying degrees of complications and lesions of skin areas.
The causes and manifestations of the disease
The reasons for the appearance in a person of this disease can be the following factors of internal or external influence.
The first are:
- diseases of the nervous system associated with the psychological state of a person, as well as their pathology;
- diseases of the immune system, which also include AIDS;
- disorders in the endocrine system;
- genetic predisposition to the disease.
External factors affecting diseases include:
- poor unbalanced diet;
- increased sweating;
- severe stress, psychological trauma;
- lack of nicotinic acid and zinc in the body;
- hypothermia of skin areas;
- the use of hygiene products and household chemicals oversaturated with an alkaline environment.
Accordingly, the exacerbation of the disease occurs under the influence of temperature factors, factors of chemical and organic exposure – through plants and animals, light exposure.
Surely you can get rid of seborrheic dermatitis only by identifying and completely eliminating the very cause of the disease.
Forms of manifestation and stages of development of the disease
Seborrheic dermatitis can occur on any part of the body rich in sebaceous glands. And in case of complications, it affects them all at the same time. The disease can be in one of three forms: oily, dry, or mixed.
In the first form of manifestation, the disease is accompanied by abundant secretion of skin secretions. It manifests itself together with acne and pimples in young people under 21 years of age, with thick sebaceous discharge, and in adolescent girls, with liquid sebum.
The other, dry, occurs mainly in adolescence before puberty, and has a decreased secretion of sebum. The affected skin is dry, with characteristic cracks. The adjacent form combines the two previous ones, is accompanied by an exacerbation of the formation of acne at any age, and is most typical for men.
There are several stages in the development of seborrheic dermatitis:
- Mild – seborrheic eczematitis. It is accompanied by the appearance of slight peeling or inflammation of the skin.
- Perinasal erythema is a lesion of areas of the nose with yellowish scaly eczema.
- A disease with constant exacerbations of the inflammatory process – spotted seborrheic dermatitis.
- The most severe is asbestos lichen. The scalp is completely covered with dense white patches.
This disease, which manifests itself on the hands, is of an allergic nature and usually occurs suddenly. It develops in the area of the fingers, elbows or palms. For reasons affecting the occurrence of seborrhea of the skin of the hands, atopic, actinic, allergic, contact and solar dermatitis are distinguished.
Dermatitis on the hands is most often the cause of a genetic predisposition, usually diagnosed as atopic. Against the background of an excess of sunlight, oversaturation of the skin with ultraviolet light, solar dermatitis may occur. Actinic dermatitis is an occupational disease that can develop in welders, farmers and X-ray workers. Contact dermatitis develops mainly on the fingers – an area of increased contact.
Inflammation of the skin of the hands that occurs during direct skin contact with external irritants is called primary. The inflammation that forms against the background of other diseases is secondary. Distinguish between acute and chronic dermatitis. At the first, the course of the disease is pronounced itching and burning, as well as the presence of bubbles, which burst over time, leaving behind erosive areas, which are subsequently covered with a crust. Chronic passes more calmly and is represented by a change in the color of the skin and their slight thickening.
Dry dermatitis on the hands occurs for the following physical reasons:
- touching something;
- exposure to high or low temperatures
- irradiation of the skin;
- oversaturation with ultraviolet light.
Often seborrheic dermatitis on the hands occurs as a result of contact with chemicals: paints, detergents, acids and alkalis. If dermatitis appears not only on the hands, but also on other parts of the body, then this is a sign of an allergic reaction of the body to any foods, plants, animals or medications.
A dermatologist is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Detection of seborrheic dermatitis is carried out by dermatoscopy. This method reveals the presence of irritation or keratinization of the skin, the degree of inflammation and the amount of secretion. This procedure is performed based on the visible signs of the disease and the patient’s complaints.
In addition to dermatoscopy, blood tests, skin examinations, and hormonal studies are additionally carried out. Additional research is needed to clarify the diagnosis and exclude other skin diseases.
If pathological factors affecting the development of the disease are identified during the diagnosis, the help of other specialists may also be needed: an endocrinologist, a gynecologist, a nutritionist.
Doctors usually prescribe a complex treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, which includes not only the use of medications, but also an individual diet. Mainly, the basis of treatment is the complete elimination of the cause causing the exacerbation of the disease.
Medication therapy usually contains:
- antibiotics, with the obligatory use of antifungal drugs;
- vitamin complexes;
- antifungal agents for external use (creams, ointments, sprays);
- physiotherapy treatment.
The folk methods used in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, first of all, include a general diet that excludes foods that cause the growth of fungal flora and sebaceous secretion of the skin from the diet. These products typically include:
- spicy dishes, smoked meats, marinades;
- fast food;
- foods that cause allergies (citrus fruits, honey, nuts, eggs, etc.);
- fatty or fried foods.
A healthy diet is of great therapeutic value for this disease and should be a priority for the patient. Food is best baked or steamed. The menu should contain a complete diet of healthy foods: complex carbohydrates, vegetables and fruits, dairy products, lean meats, vegetable oils.
In the treatment of seborrhea, the people also use various herbal tinctures and decoctions, tar mud.
To reduce the risk of developing the disease, the following preventive methods must be observed:
- hygiene of the body and food;
- restriction in the consumption of alcoholic beverages;
- undergoing medical examination and timely treatment of other identified diseases;
- reducing the amount of stress and fatigue;
- immunity support: taking vitamin complexes, playing sports, hardening.