An inflammatory skin disease, eczema, known since ancient times, still complicates the lives of many people today. Since the 19th century, when it was isolated as a separate form from the group of dermatitis, it has been well studied and described. The disease is distinguished by a large number of variants of development and course, on which the effectiveness of therapy depends.
Causes of occurrence
With eczema, the top layer of the skin becomes inflamed, it becomes covered with a rash, itches, itches, hurts, and flakes. The disease has acute and chronic forms. Relapses are possible after periods of remission.
As a result of research, scientists have concluded that eczema requires a combination of several causes and conditions, both external and internal. This is a polyetiological disease. The main role in its appearance is played by the immune shift in the human body. Other factors that contribute to the development of the disease:
Adverse effects on the skin of a thermal, mechanical, chemical type. Damage to peripheral nerves in trauma, burns, ulcers. Diseases of internal systems and organs: gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, endocrine system, liver, etc. Heredity .
Types of eczema
The disease is characterized by a wide variety of forms in terms of localization and symptoms. It is customary to subdivide eczema into:
Seborrheic. True. Microbial. Professional. Tylotic. Dyshidrotic. Mycotic.
The process of inflammation in true eczema, starting most often on the hands and face, spreads to other areas of the skin. It manifests itself as serous micropapules , which quickly open up, leaving weeping erosion. As the current flows, crusts appear in their place. The disease is continuous and often becomes chronic, accompanied by complications. The skin itches, flakes, its appearance and structure changes.
With eczema caused by microbes, in addition to erosion, purulent crusts are layered on the foci. Sometimes it transforms into a true one. With seborrheic, the hairy parts of the body or areas with an increased content of the sebaceous glands are affected. Annular plaques of fused papules and scaly spots appear on them.
Occupational eczema occurs with adverse effects associated with work activities. The dyshidrotic form is localized on the feet and palms.
Due to the variety of types of the disease, it is recommended to consult a dermatologist. After identifying the provoking factors and examining the body, he will prescribe an effective treatment. Elimination of its causes is of great importance in the treatment of eczema. So, with its microbial, fungal nature, treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents is required, with allergic – elimination, if possible, of contact with the allergen.
The standard treatment regimen usually includes a combination of local and systemic medications, often using a cream for eczema containing corticosteroids. Ointments containing Mometasone help well . To reduce the manifestation of neurotic reactions, sedatives, tranquilizers, vitamins, and diet are used.
Itching and other disturbing skin symptoms are removed with special pastes, gels, lotions. Antihistamines are prescribed. In everyday life, it is recommended to use special personal hygiene products and special cosmetics.